Sunday, April 23, 2017

Begining Activities for the Early Years

During our work with children and families and as teachers, we often worked with students who were just beginning in a structured learning environment.

To determine first goals and objectives for them, we considered what the children could already accomplish as well as their emerging skills. We thought about the developmental or curriculum areas that were important to address.

We hope the following example of goals and objectives for one such beginning child will add to your knowledge about “where to start.”

·       Developmental or Curriculum Area: Imitation/One way children learn is by copying what they see others do.
·       Objectives: Have your child copy your actions with objects – plays musical instrument as you do, activates toys as you demonstrate, pretends to feed, give a drink, bathe, brush teeth of stuffed animal or doll

·       Developmental or Curriculum Area: Fine Motor/Maneuvers hands or fingers for some desired result
·       Objectives:
1.     Uses 1 finger to poke a hole in a ball of playdoh or uses 1 finger to push object through opening in lid of a container.
2.     Uses 2 hands together to pull apart pop beads or Legos or play cymbals or roll a ball or make a ball of playdoh.
3.     Squeezes to pull clothespins or clips off can rim.
4.     Scoops beads or water with shovel or scoops and empties into larger container.
5.     Turns wrist to empty container with a small opening to get treat.
6.     Scribbles with a crayon or marker.
·       Developmental or Curriculum Area: Thinking/Young children work on problem solving skills with different types of play.
·       Objective:  Explores a variety of cause and effect toys figuring out how to operate them.

·       Developmental or Curriculum Area:  Matching/Sorting/Children organize all the sights and sounds they see and hear by grouping them into categories.
·       Objectives:
1.     Matches and sorts 2 dissimilar objects that are identical sets (spoons versus blocks, for example).
2.     In everyday life, practices putting away socks vs. underwear.
3.     Matches pairs of socks.

·       Developmental or Curriculum Area: Number Skills/First children learn the concept of 1-to-1 correspondence.
·       Objectives: 
1.     Places 1 object in each section of a muffin tin, egg carton, etc.; at first using objects that completely fill the opening.
2.     Once successful with this task, next places objects that are smaller so that more than 1 could fit into the opening.  Label each section with the numeral 1.
3.     When the student child puts in the object, point to the 1 and say, “1”.
4.     After much practice with this 1-to-1 correspondence task, next mark another egg carton, with the numeral 2, and see if he can place 2 objects in each section.
5.     After practicing with 2, then introduce 1 and 2 at the same time and see if the student can then make this discrimination between counting 1 or 2.

·       Developmental or Curriculum Area: Eye-Hand Integration/This involves a child’s coordinating his motor movements with what his eyes see.
·       Objectives:  Types of tasks include simple puzzles, shape boxes, placing pegs in pegboard, placing beads on a spindle, pipe cleaner, or string.

·       Developmental or Curriculum Area:  Understanding Language/How a child listens and responds to nonverbal cues and spoken words.
·       Objectives:
1.     Responds to nonverbal gestures, such as a point which shows where to place an object, outstretched hand which tells to give, or a gesture that means come here.
2.     Follows 1-step directions as part of a daily routine; for example, GET _________.
3.     Touches facial body parts when named (eye, ear, nose, mouth, hair).   You can draw pictures of the body parts and show him the picture as you help the students touch the correct body part.  Or have them look in the mirror as they respond.

·       Developmental or Curriculum Area: Expressing needs and wants/Children express what they want in a variety of verbal and nonverbal ways.
·       Objectives:
Gives an object to represent what he wants (bubbles, candy wrapper, cup). When he gives the object, give him what he wants and say the one word labeling the object.

In addition to these beginning skills, remember how important it will be to teach your students the meaning of first-next sequences. These can easily be incorporated into daily routines. Some examples include first, work—then bubbles; first, shoes – then outside; first brush teeth – then bath.

Also important is designing learning situations so that the students know when the end of the work will be. For example, if a student is working on identifying body parts, there might be 5 pictures of different body parts that represent how long the activity will last. As each is touched, the card for that body part is put into a finished container. Teaching the concept of finished within the work routines is equally valuable to the student. Knowing when some activity will be completed and what will be next enhances the students’ attention.

Our Tasks Galore books provide multiple visual tasks that can address the objectives in this example and many, many others.  
Tasks Galore Books offer many task ideas to assist you in addressing your educational objectives.

Wednesday, April 5, 2017

April 2017 Task of the Month

With this task, students match erasers that represent coins to amounts written on stickers and attached to individual sections of a tray.

Although best practice states that children with developmental delays should use real coins when learning money concepts, we often must start out with items that are larger and easier to grasp. These erasers overly exaggerate the details that distinguish one coin from another. They enable students to see the differences among the coins (size, color, wording) more easily.

Once students are successful matching coin amounts using these erasers as the “coins,” we then substitute these with real coins.

After students learn the concept of coin amounts and know a penny equals 1 cent; a nickel equals 5 cents, etc., we might set up a classroom snack menu with associated prices and have students practice which coins to use to buy their snacks.

We continually think how students can generalize their newly found knowledge to the real world. Using their skills in “real life” settings makes the skills more meaningful.